CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
Erroneous beliefs and preconceived ideas are a lock on the door of the human mind; they have proven to be very effective in keeping the truth at bay. In the past, the belief systems of most people were acquired directly from their parents as they grew up. Countless generations clung to their inherited beliefs with great tenacity, vigorously promoting them as bequeathed truth. Yet in the vast majority of cases, the origin of these beliefs was not based on fact, but rather on supposition or hearsay.
Unfortunately, this has been doubly true in the case of religious convictions. Most who have professed to be Christians have not studied God's Word to prove or disprove their beliefs, as God commands and expects (I The. 5:21; Acts 17:11). Instead of the Bible, many have relied on their priest, pastor, or minister to explain God and His purpose to them. Some of those who did look into the Bible for themselves sought out "proof texts" that seemed to substantiate their original views. Usually taken out of context, these "proof text" verses were esteemed at the expense of the rest of the Word. Any Scripture which appeared contradictory to their beliefs was ignored or rationalized away.
Satan the devil has used this prevalent flaw in human nature to deceive almost the entire world about one of the central topics of the Bible, the prophesied Messiah. The identity and activities of the one to whom all authority in heaven and on earth has been given (Matt. 28:18; I Cor. 15:27) remains a mystery to most of the world. However, the Bible discloses who this being is and what he's been doing to accomplish God's plan for mankind. In this article, I'm going to show you what God's Word has to say about the Messiah before his birth as Jesus Christ. Many believe that God the Father was the one who interacted with ancient Israel personally, appearing and speaking to the patriarchs and to Moses. Yet the Bible plainly contradicts this belief.
JOHN 1:18 "No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him. (NKJV)
JOHN 5:37 "And the Father Himself, who sent Me, has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His form." (NKJV)
JOHN 6:46 "Not that any man hath seen the Father, except he who is from God, he hath seen the Father." (RWB)
I TIMOTHY 6:14 . . . Our Lord Jesus Christ, 15 who at the due time will be revealed by God, the blessed and only Ruler of all, the King of kings and the Lord of lords, 16 who alone is immortal, whose home is in inaccessible light, whom no man has seen and no man is able to see: to him be honor and everlasting power. Amen. (Jerusalem Bible)
I JOHN 4:12 No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us. (NKJV)
As you can see, the New Testament makes it abundantly clear that the Father has never been seen or heard by mankind. So who was the LORD who appeared and spoke to Abraham (Gen. 17:1; 18:1),
Moses (Exo. 33:11) and others in the Old Testament? The Scriptures we will examine strongly indicate that it was the one who became Jesus Christ!
Let's begin by establishing the primary identity by which the preincarnate Christ was known to the ancient Israelites. To do this, we'll begin in the New Testament, in Paul's first epistle to the Corinthian Church.
I CORINTHIANS 10:1 Moreover, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware that all our fathers were under the cloud, all passed through the sea, 2 all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3 all ate the same spiritual food, 4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. (NKJV)
In this passage, Paul is continuing an exhortation to the Corinthians to hold fast to their faith in Christ. He tells them that their physical and/or spiritual ancestors, the ancient Israelites, were led out of Egypt by the Messiah. Paul says that those people who were under the supernatural cloud and passed through the parted Red Sea were spiritually fed by "that spiritual Rock that followed them." Paul clearly states that this Rock was none other than Christ himself! Let's look at a couple of key verses in the story of the Israelites' escape from Egypt.
EXODUS 13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so as to go by day and night. (NKJV)
EXODUS 14:19 And the Angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud went from before them and stood behind them. (NKJV)
In these verses we see the one who shepherded the Israelites out of Egypt identified. In Exodus 13:21 he is called "the LORD," or YHVH in the original Hebrew. However, in Exodus 14:19, the being in the cloud going before the Israelites is called the "Angel of God." How do we explain this apparent discrepancy? Are these two separate entities, or are they one and the same?
Evidence from the Scriptures indicates that the being called YHVH in Exodus 13:21 is indeed the same entity referred to as the "Angel of God" in Exodus 14:19. Without going into a lot of detail, a review of the Old Testament will show that the name YHVH, found over 6,800 times in the Old Testament, was applied to God the Father (Deu. 18:15; Psa. 110:1), the Messiah (Exo. 13:21; 19:20; Num 21:6), and even to angels (Gen. 19:18, original Hebrew text). So the use of this name does not automatically identify the spiritual entity referred to here. However, Judges 2:1 confirms that it was the Angel of the LORD (the Angel of God) who led the Israelites out of Egypt and into the Promised Land.
JUDGES 2:1 Then the Angel of the LORD came up from Gilgal to Bochim, and said: "I led you up from Egypt and brought you to the land of which I swore to your fathers; and I said, 'I will never break My covenant with you.'" (NKJV)
According to Paul (I Cor. 10:4), this Angel of the LORD was none other than the one who later became Jesus Christ! Unfortunately, the term "angel" conveys a specific meaning to most people today. However, the Hebrew word mal'ak, usually translated "angel" in the Old Testament, merely means "messenger" or one sent with a message. Haggai is called "the LORD'S messenger" (mal'ak) because he brought the words of God to the Jews (Hag. 1:13); Malachi says that people should seek the law from the mouth of a priest, who is a "messenger (mal'ak) of the LORD" (Mal. 2:7).
Just as the Angel of the LORD was God's messenger to the people of Israel, Christ was also a "messenger" of God the Father in the New Testament. Regarding his role, Yeshua said "I have not spoken on my own authority; the Father who sent me has told me what to say and what to speak" (John 12:49).
In I Corinthians 10:9 Paul again clearly identifies the YHVH who accompanied the Israelites in their desert sojourn as Christ. The incident he mentions here (recorded in Numbers 21:5-6) occurred while the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness for 40 years.
I CORINTHIANS 10:9 Nor let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted [Christ], and were destroyed by serpents; (NKJV)
NUMBERS 21:5 And the people spoke against God and against Moses: "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and our soul loathes this worthless bread." 6 So the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and many of the people of Israel died. (NKJV)
A comparison of the two Scriptures above makes it clear that Christ and "God" ('Elohim) and "the LORD" (YHVH) mentioned in Numbers 21:5-6 are the same entity. Both the Old and New Testaments show that this YHVH was the Angel who acted as the primary spokesman for God the Father. In fact, he was the one who spoke to Moses from the burning bush.
EXODUS 3:2 And the Angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire from the midst of a bush. So he looked, and behold, the bush was burning with fire, but the bush was not consumed. 3 Then Moses said, "I will now turn aside and see this great sight, why the bush does not burn." 4 So when the LORD [YHVH] saw that he turned aside to look, God called to him from the midst of the bush and said, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am." 5 Then He said, "Do not draw near this place. Take your sandals off your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground." 6 Moreover He said, "I am the God of your father -- the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God. (NKJV)
ACTS 7:30 [Stephen said] "And when forty years had passed, an Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire in a bush, in the wilderness of Mount Sinai." (NKJV)
ACTS 7:35 "This Moses whom they rejected, saying, 'Who made you a ruler and a judge?' is the one God sent to be a ruler and a deliverer by the hand of the Angel who appeared to him in the bush. (NKJV)
This wasn't the only occasion on which the Angel of the LORD talked to Moses on behalf of the Father. This same Angel also delivered the Ten Commandments to Moses and the people of Israel on Mount Sinai.
ACTS 7:38 "This is he [Moses] who was in the congregation in the wilderness with the Angel who spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, the one who received the living oracles to give to us, (NKJV)
In his speech before the Sanhedrin council, Stephen, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, gives us a great deal of information about the Angel of the LORD. He stated that it was this Angel who spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, and later to all the people. Let's look at the giving of the Ten Commandments as it is recorded in Exodus.
EXODUS 19:20 Then the LORD [YHVH] came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the LORD [YHVH] called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. 21 And the LORD [YHVH] said to Moses, "Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the LORD, and many of them perish." (NKJV)
EXODUS 20:1 And God ['Elohim] spoke all these words, saying: 2 " I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." (NKJV)
We see here that the entity referred to as "the Angel" by Stephen is the same one called YHVH and 'Elohim in these verses from Exodus. This further proves that the terms "LORD" and "Angel of the LORD" were at times used interchangeably for the same being.
In Acts 7:38, Stephen also tells us that this Angel, the one who spoke to the Israelites from Mount Sinai, was in the wilderness with Moses and the congregation of Israel during their wandering.
Exodus 23:20-23 confirms this and shows that the Angel's duties included keeping the Israelites in God's ways and bringing them into the Promised Land.
EXODUS 23:20 " Behold, I send an Angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 Beware of Him and obey His voice; do not provoke Him, for He will not pardon your transgressions; for My name is in Him. 22 But if you indeed obey His voice and do all that I speak, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 For My Angel will go before you and bring you in to the Amorites and the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Canaanites and the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I will cut them off. (NKJV)
This Angel was a messenger delivering God's words to Moses and the people of Israel, and God's name was in him. Because of this role, at times he referred to himself in the third person when relaying God's messages. Without an understanding and awareness of his role, things can get a little confusing when reading the statements and activities of this Angel. In fact, the Scriptures even show Moses himself becoming confused in one instance.
EXODUS 33:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Depart and go up from here, you and the people whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt, to the land of which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, 'To your descendants I will give it.' 2 And I will send My Angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanite and the Amorite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite. 3 Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in your midst, lest I consume you on the way, for you are a stiff-necked people." (NKJV)
God the Father, through His messenger the Angel, tells Moses that He will not accompany them into the Promised Land. The Angel so translucently communicates God's remarks to Moses that it appears as if he is talking to Moses himself, instead of God the Father speaking through him. This situation seems to confuse Moses, because he goes on to say that the Angel had not let him know whom he would send with him to lead the Israelites into the Promised Land (Exo. 33:12). He obviously didn't recognize that the Angel was speaking for God in verse 3 and not for himself. Moses apparently thought that the Angel of the LORD, who had accompanied them to this point, would be replaced by another angel. God, through the Angel, reassures Moses that His "Presence" would continue to accompany them.
EXODUS 33:14 And He said, "My Presence will go with you, and I will give you rest." 15 Then he said to Him, "If Your Presence does not go with us, do not bring us up from here. (NKJV)
Since we already know that the Angel of the LORD went with the Israelites (Judges 2:1), it's evident that this Angel is the one referred to as the "Presence" of YHVH. Moses proclaims this to the people of Israel in Deuteronomy 4:37, and the Angel of the LORD is called the "Angel of His Presence" in Isaiah 63:9.
DEUTERONOMY 4:37 [Moses said] "Because he loved your forefathers and chose their descendants after them, he brought you out of Egypt by his Presence and his great strength," (NIV)
ISAIAH 63:9 In all their [the Israelites'] affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel of His Presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He bore them and carried them all the days of old. (NKJV)
The Angel of the LORD was also called the Angel of God's Presence because he possessed the nature, character, and authority of God the Father. This concept has numerous parallels to Christ in the New Testament
II CORINTHIANS 4:4 . . . Christ, who is the image of God . . . (NKJV)
COLOSSIANS 1:15 [Christ] . . . is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: (KJV)
HEBREWS 1:3 [Christ] . . . being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power . . . (NKJV)
Another pair of Scriptures further identifies the Angel of the LORD as Christ. Recorded in Judges 13 is the story of Samson's parents being notified of his impending birth by the Angel of the LORD. Manoah, Samson's father, did not realize that the one who foretold the birth of his son was the Angel (Judges 13:16). He asked the Angel of the LORD what his name was, so that they might honor him when his prophecy came true. The Angel's answer is very revealing, if understood correctly.
JUDGES 13:18 And the Angel of Jehovah said to him, Why do you ask this about My name? Yea, it is Wonderful. (A Literal Translation of the Bible)
The Angel of YHVH answered Manoah by saying that his name was "Wonderful." When we compare the Angel's answer to the prophecy of the coming Messiah recorded in Isaiah 9:6, the similarities are striking.
ISAIAH 9:6 For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (NKJV)
The name the Angel gave Manoah is one of the names prophesied to be applied to Yeshua the Messiah. By itself, this could simply be discounted as a coincidence. However, when considered with the weight of the other evidence we've examined, it's clear that the Angel of the LORD is the one who became Christ.
In the first century C.E., the Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (LXX) was widely used by Greek-speaking Jews. In the LXX, this same verse is rendered somewhat differently.
ISAIAH 9:6 For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger [aggelos] of great counsel: for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him. (Brenton's LXX) As you can see, the Septuagint calls the coming Messiah the "Aggelos (Angel) of Great Counsel." Both the Hebrew and Greek versions of this verse link the coming Messiah to the Angel of the LORD. The evidence is substantial that the Angel of the LORD and Yeshua the Messiah are one and the same!
Another appearance of the being we know as Christ is recorded in Joshua 5:13-15. Here he calls himself the "Commander of the host of YHVH."
JOSHUA 5:13 And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted his eyes and looked, and behold, a Man stood opposite him with His sword drawn in His hand. And Joshua went to Him and said to Him, "Are You for us or for our adversaries?" 14 So He said, "No, but as Commander of the army [tsaba', "host"] of the LORD I have now come." And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped, and said to Him, "What does my Lord say to His servant?" 15 Then the Commander of the LORD's army said to Joshua, "Take your sandal off your foot, for the place where you stand is holy." And Joshua did so. (NKJV)
From Revelation 22:8-9, we know that worship of angels is forbidden. However, here we see Joshua bowing before and worshiping this Angel. Indeed, just as with the Angel of the LORD in the burning bush on Mount Sinai (Exo. 3:5), the ground where this Angel stood was considered holy. Clearly, this is no ordinary spirit being.In their commentary on this passage of Scripture, Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown state: ". . . The address and the adoration of Joshua, the holiness communicated to the spot by the presence of this Personage, and the application to him of the name Jehovah (ch. vi. 2), identify Him with the Angel of the Lord . . . " (A Commentary: Critical, Experimental, and Practical, vol. I, part 2, p. 13).
This Scripture identifies another role the Messiah plays in God's plan: that of the commander of His holy angels. Several New Testament passages show that Christ is the commander of the army of God's loyal angels.
REVELATION 19:11 And I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He who sat on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and wages war. 12 His eyes are a flame of fire, and on His head are many diadems; and He has a name written on Him which no one knows except Himself. 13 He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses. 15 From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty. 16 And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." (NASB)
JUDE 14 It was also about these that Enoch, in the seventh generation from Adam, prophesied, saying, "See, the Lord is coming with ten thousands of his holy ones, 15 to execute judgment on all, and to convict everyone of all the deeds of ungodliness that they have committed in such an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things that ungodly sinners have spoken against him." (NRSV)
MATTHEW 25:31 "When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory." (NKJV)
MARK 8:38 "For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels." (NASB)
The Messiah's position as the commander of the army of holy angels goes hand-in-hand with his role as guardian of the nation of Israel, as we will see.Is there any other character identified in the Bible as the commander of the holy angels and the protector of the nation of Israel? Yes, there most definitely is!
DANIEL 12:1 "At that time Michael, the great prince, the protector of your people [Israel], shall arise. There shall be a time of anguish, such as has never occurred since nations first came into existence. But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone who is found written in the book. (NRSV)
REVELATION 12:7 Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon [Satan]; and the dragon and his angels fought, 8 but they were defeated and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. (RSV)
Most people believe that Michael is one of several high-ranking "archangels" that serve God. Yet a look at what the Bible says about this topic shows that this belief is not substantiated. The term "archangel" is found only twice in the Bible.
I THESSALONIANS 4:16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel [archaggelou] and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. (NASB)
JUDE 9 But Michael the archangel [ho archaggelos], when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!" (NASB)
The word "archangel" is simply a transliteration into English of the Greek word archaggelos. This compound word is comprised of the Greek words arche and aggelos. Arche means primacy, either in relation to time or rank; aggelos has the same meaning as the Hebrew word ma'lak; it refers to a messenger or an envoy. The literal meaning of archaggelos is "chief messenger." The Bible clearly shows that Christ was God's "chief messenger" to mankind.
JOHN 8:26 " . . . He who sent Me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I heard from Him." (NKJV)
JOHN 12:49 [Christ said] "For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak." (NKJV)
As we saw in the Scriptures above, Michael is the only "archangel" referenced in the Bible. The belief in multiple "archangels" appears to have developed in early Judaism. This belief was later adopted and enhanced by the Catholic church. The concept seems to have been derived from a passage in the book of Daniel.
DANIEL 10:13 "But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days; and behold, Michael, one ['echad] of the chief princes, came to help me, for I had been left alone there with the kings of Persia." (NKJV)
In this verse, Michael is called "one" of the chief princes. The majority of translations render the Hebrew word 'echad as "one" here. Most scholars take this to mean that he is only one of an unspecified group of equivalent rank. However, 'echad can also be translated "first," as it is in Young's Literal Translation, shown below.
DANIEL 10:13 'And the head of the kingdom of Persia is standing over-against me twenty and one days, and lo, Michael, first ['echad] of the chief heads, hath come in to help me, and I have remained there near the kings of Persia;' (YLT)
When this meaning of 'echad is applied, Daniel 10:13 takes on an entirely different context. In Young's translation, Michael's position is shown to be above the other "princes." The Bible reveals that these rulers are actually angels who have been given authority over the various nations of the earth (for additional details, see my article "Satan and the Fallen Angels)." Michael is designated as the one over the nation of Israel in Daniel 10:21 and 12:1.
DANIEL 10:20 Then he said, "Do you know why I have come to you? But now I will return to fight against the prince of Persia; and when I am through with him, lo, the prince of Greece will come. 21 But I will tell you what is inscribed in the book of truth: there is none who contends by my side against these except Michael, your prince. (RSV)
DANIEL 12:1 "At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time; but at that time your people shall be delivered, every one whose name shall be found written in the book. (RSV)
When all the Scriptures on this topic are objectively examined, we can see that the belief Michael is one of several archangels is not supported. In fact, The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary states that around the time of Christ, "Michael was sometimes spoken of as the angel who mediated between God and Moses in the giving of the law at Sinai (cf. Jub. 1:27; 2:1) and so may be the angel mentioned at Acts 7:38" ("Michael," p. 716). As we have already seen, the angel mentioned by Stephen in Acts 7:38 is the Angel of the LORD, who is synonymous with Yeshua the Messiah.
The Jewish understanding of who Christ had been before his incarnation was one of the reasons that the distinction between the Messiah and the other angels had to be drawn in the first chapter of Hebrews. Rather than denigrating the position of the angels, this chapter was meant instead to elevate the status of Michael (Christ) above the other angels in order to clarify his role to the Messianic Jews of that day.There is another pair of Scriptures that seem to connect the Angel of the LORD and Michael. One is from the Old Testament (Zec. 3:1-2), and the other is from the New Testament (Jude 9).
ZECHARIAH 3:1 Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to oppose him. 2 And the LORD said to Satan, "The LORD rebuke you, Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is this not a brand plucked from the fire?" (NKJV)
JUDE 9 But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!" (NASB)
As you can see, in both instances Michael and the Angel of the LORD reacted identically to Satan. Taken with the other Scriptures we've examined, this is further evidence that Michael is another name for the Angel. In fact, the name Michael literally means in Hebrew "one who is like God." This name fits perfectly with the Angel of the LORD, who had God's name in him (Exo. 23:21) and was the "Presence" of YHVH
(Exo. 33:14; Deu. 4:37; Isa. 63:9). It also fits perfectly with Christ, who was the exact image of God (II Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:3). Michael, the one who will "appear" at the time of trouble at the end of this age, can be none other than Yeshua the Messiah. The Bible shows it is Christ who will return at the end of the age and gather his people, all the tribes of Israel, back into the Promised Land.
JEREMIAH 23:5 " Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; a King shall reign and prosper, and execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. 6 In His days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell safely; now this is His name by which He will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. 7 Therefore, behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "that they shall no longer say, 'As the LORD lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,' 8 but, 'As the LORD lives who brought up and led the descendants of the house of Israel from the north country and from all the countries where I had driven them.' And they shall dwell in their own land." (NKJV)
As we've seen from the Old Testament, Christ has had numerous roles in God's plan for mankind. He acted as the guardian of Israel when they came out of Egypt, traveling with them in the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night. The Messiah was the one who delivered God's words to the Israelites from Mount Sinai. He protected them in the wilderness and punished them when they sinned. This Angel stood up for God's people when Satan slandered them before the heavenly throne. As the commander of the holy host, Christ has battled against Satan and his demons and triumphed. It's time to realize and appreciate the central role that God designated in His plan for the one we know as Jesus Christ. He's our Savior, Redeemer, Shepherd, Protector, Brother, and Lord.
Bryan T. Huie
Updated: November 16, 1997